This panel consists of 20 genes that have been associated with syndromic and non-syndromic forms of thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD). Complications from these disorders can occur at any age, and the presentation can be extremely variable. Inheritance is most often autosomal dominant with incomplete penetrance, but some forms of familial TAAD appear to follow an autosomal recessive pattern. Syndromic conditions that include the potential for aortic dysfunction include the following: Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, congenital contractural arachnodactyly, Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome, and arterial tortuosity syndrome. In addition to cardiovascular findings, skeletal manifestations are common, while craniofacial changes may or may not be present. Non-syndromic familial thoracic aortic aneurysm exhibits heterogeneity, and not all causative genes have been identified. Medical surveillance and intervention ranging from medication, routine imaging studies, and surgical correction is critical to reduce the incidence of serious or fatal cardiovascular complications.